Great Hammerhead Shark


Bass, A.J., J.D. D’Aubrey, and N. Kistnasamy. 1975. Sharks of the East Coast of Southern Africa. III. The Families Carcharhinidae (excluding Mustelus and Carcharhinus) and Sphyrnidae. Oceanogr. Res. Inst. Invest. Rep. 38: 44-45.

Cadenat, J., and J. Blanche. 1981. Requins de Méditerranée et d’ Atlantique (Plus Particuliérement de la Côte Occidentale d’ Afrique). Faune Tropicale XXI. ORSTROM, Paris. pp 287-290.

Cliff, G. 1995. Sharks Caught in the Protective Gill Nets off Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa. 8. The Great Hammerhead Shark Sphyrna mokarran Rüppell. S. Afr. J. Mar. Sci., 15: 105-114.

Gudger, E.W. 1947. Sizes Attained by the Large Hammerhead Sharks. Copeia, 1937(4): 228-236.

Johnson, Richard H. 1978. Sharks of Polynesia. Les Editions du Pacifique, Papeete. 170 pp.

Martin, Andrew. 1993. Hammerhead Shark Origins. Nature, 364 [5 August 1993]: 494.

Nakaya, Kazuhiro. 1995. Hydrodynamic Function of the Head in the Hammerhead Sharks (Elasmobranchii: Sphyrnidae). Copeia, 1995(2): 330-336.

Reif, Wolf-Ernst. 1987. Squamation of Hammerhead Sharks: Variation in the Polarity Field. Zool. Jb. Anat., 115: 153-161.

Stevens, J.D., and J.M. Lyle. 1989. Biology of Three Hammerhead Sharks (Eusphyra blochii, Sphyrna mokarran, and S. lewini) from Northern Australia. Aust. J. Mar. Freshw. Res., 40: 129-146.

Strong, Wesley R., Jr., Franklin F. Snelson, and Samuel H. Gruber. 1990. Hammerhead Shark Predation on Stingrays: an Observation of Prey Handling by Sphyrna mokarran. Copeia, 1990(3): 836-840.

Taniuchi, Toru. 1974. Three Species of Hammerhead Sharks in the Southwestern Waters of Japan. Jap. J. Ichthyol., 21(3): 145-152.

Wallet, Tim. 1983. Shark Attack and Treatment of Victims in Southern African Waters. C. Struik Publishers, Capetown. pp 116-117.

Rocky Reefs: Rich Feeding in Cool Waters

Andrew, Neil (ed.) 2000. Under Southern Seas: The Ecology of Australia’s Rocky Reefs. Krieger Publishing, Malabar. 238 pp.

Branch. Margo, and George Branch. 1981. The Living Shores of Southern Africa. C. Struik Publishers, Capetown. pp 26-50.

Deans, Nora L., Michael Rigsby, Roxane Buck-Ezcurra, and Lisa M. Tooker (eds.) 1997. Natural History of the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. Monterey Bay Aquarium/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Monterey. 259 pp.

Kingsford, Michael, and Christopher Battershill (eds.) 1998. Studying Temperate Marine Environments: a Handbook for Ecologists. Canterbury University Press, Christchurch. 335 pp.


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