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Why Yet Another Shark Website?


R. Aidan Martin Biosketch

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Note to Students Who Would Like Help

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Featured Photographers

David Fleetham

Simon P. Oliver

Jeremy Stafford-Deitsch

Featured Paleo-Artist

Robert Nicholls

Recommended Shark Websites

Credit Where Due



Checklist of Living Sharks

Standardized Maturity Stages for Viviparous Sharks

Diving in the Company of Sharks

Biology of the Bluntnose Sixgill

Opportunities for Students

A Note to Students

So, You Wanna Be a Shark Biologist

Books Recommended for the Advanced Student

How to Cite Material from this Website


Request for Shark Tissue Samples

Request for Shark and Ray Egg Cases

Request for Reports of Stranded White Sharks from the Pacific Northwest


Explorations in Shark Evolution

Explorations in Shark Diversity

Shark Ecology

So You Wanna Be a Shark Researcher?

Opportunities to Participate in Research

Biology of the Great White Shark

Topics in Shark Biology

Recommended Shark Books

How to Draw Sharks

Explorations in Shark Evolution

Evolution of a Super Predator

Fathoming Geologic Time

Geologic Time Chart

Earliest Sharks

Ancient Sharks

Jaws, Then and Now

Feeding Habits of Cladoselache

Golden Age of Sharks

Helicoprion: an Intriguing Puzzle

Origin of Modern Sharks

Rise of Modern Sharks

Evolution of Lamnoid Sharks

Cretoxyrhina mantelli


White Shark Carcharodon carcharias

Molecular Clocks and Shark Evolution


Origin of Megalodon

Carcharodon vs Carcharocles


Reconstructing Megalodon

Megalodon Compared with Other Giants

Polar Bear
White Shark
African Elephant
Tyrannosaurus rex
Whale Shark
Humpback Whale
Giant Squid
Sperm Whale

Glossopetrae and the Birth of Paleontology

The Awful Tooth

Color Variation in Megalodon Teeth

More than One Way to Size a Fish

Megalodon as a Big Sandtiger

Paleoecology of Megalodon and the White Shark

Trophic Treasure Trove

Extinction of Megalodon

Does Megalodon Still Live?

Ancient, not Primitive

Guide to Fossil and Modern Shark Teeth

Fossil Teeth
Recent Teeth

Special Thanks

Explorations in Shark Diversity



Albino Zebras and Leopards Changing their Spots

Shark Classification


Molecular Systematics

Galea vs Squalea

Fishes: a Slippery Subject

The Coelacanth - a Morphological Mixed Bag

What Makes a Shark a Shark?

The Structure of Scientific Names

How to Pronounce Scientific Names

Galea - Galeomorph Sharks

Heterodontiformes - Bullhead Sharks

Orectolobiformes - Carpet Sharks

Albino Zebras and Leopards Changing their Spots

Lamniformes - Mackerel Sharks

Mitsukurinidae - Goblin Shark

Mitsukurina owstoni - Goblin Shark

Goblin Shark  Specimens in the Scientific Literature

Carchariidae - Sandtiger Shark

Carcharias taurus Sandtiger Shark

Odontaspididae - Ragged-Tooth Sharks

Odontaspis ferox - Bumpytail Ragged-Tooth Shark

Odontaspis noronhai - Bigeye Ragged-Tooth Shark

Alopiidae - Thresher Sharks

Alopias vulpinus - Common Thresher

Alopias pelagicus - Pelagic Thresher

Alopias superciliosus - Bigeye Thresher

Megachasmidae - Megamouth Shark

Megachasma pelagios - Megamouth Shark


Lamniformes (continued)

Pseudocarchariidae - Crocodile Shark

Pseudocarcharias kamoharai - Crocodile Shark

Cetorhinidae - Basking Shark

Cetorhinus maximus - Basking Shark

Lamnidae - Mackerel Sharks

Lamna ditropis - Salmon Shark

Lamna nasus - Porbeagle

Carcharodon carcharias - White Shark

Isurus oxyrinchus - Shortfin Mako

Isurus paucus - Longfin Mako

Patterns in Lamnoid Evolution

Carcharhiniformes - Ground Sharks

Carcharhinidae and Galeocerdidae - Whaler and Tiger  Sharks

Sphyrnidae - Hammerhead Sharks

Scalloped Hammerhead FAQ

Scyliorhinidae - Cat Sharks

Dogfish or Catshark?

Proscylliidae & Pseudotriakidae - Finback & False Catsharks

Triakidae & Galeorhinidae - Smoothhound Sharks

Squalea - Squalomorph Sharks

Chlamydoselachiformes - Frilled Shark

Hexanchiformes - Cow Sharks

Echinorhiniformes - Bramble Sharks

Squaliformes - Dogfish Sharks

Dogfish or Catshark?

Squatiniformes - Angel Sharks

Pristiophoriformes - Sawsharks

Batoidea - Batoids


Bully for Batoids!

Pristiformes - Sawfishes

Rhiniformes - Sharkfin Guitarfish

Rhynchobatiformes - Shovelnose Guitarfishes

Torpediniformes - Electric Ray

Rajiformes - Skates

Skate or Ray?

Myliobatiformes - Stingrays



Shark Ecology

A Sea Change

An Adaptable Design


Epaulette Shark

Port Jackson Shark

Nurse Shark


Leopard Shark

Bonnethead Shark

Lemon Shark

Sandy Plains

Pacific Angel Shark

Longnose Sawshark

Broadnose Sevengill

Great Hammerhead

Rocky Reefs

Spiny Dogfish


Bluntnose Sixgill

White Shark

Basking Shark

Scalloped Hammerhead

Kelp Forests

Horn Shark

Pyjama Catshark


Coral Reefs

Whitetip Reef Shark

Zebra Shark

Grey Reef Shark

Whale Shark

Spotted Wobbegong

Tiger Shark

Open Ocean

Blue Shark

Common Thresher

Silky Shark

Shortfin Mako

Oceanic Whitetip

Deep Sea

Frilled Shark

Goblin Shark

Velvetbelly Lanternshark

Bigeye Thresher

Chain Catshark

Megamouth Shark

Pacific Sleeper Shark

Cookiecutter Shark

Polar Seas

Greenland Shark

Salmon Shark


Bull Shark

A Place for Sharks

A Call to Action


ID Guides










Biology of the Great White Shark


Brief Overview of the Great White Shark

Evolution and Classification

Fossil History of the White Shark

Classification of the White Shark

Order Lamnifomes

Family Lamnidae

One Species or Several?

White Shark or Great White Shark?

A White Shark by Any Other Name


Anatomy: Form and Function

Hydrodynamics: Fluid Motion

Body Shape and Swimming Style

Fins to the Left, Fins to the Right

Propulsive Beauty is Skin Deep

Skin of the Teeth

Teeth of the Skin

Skeleton in the Corset

Swimming Muscles and Kinetic Jaws

No Guts, No Glory


Physiology: Fire of Life

Life and Energy

Super-Charged Gills and Blood

Heart of an Athlete

Circulation and a Wonderful Net

Fire in the Belly - Warm Bodied Sharks

Circulation (continued)

More on Warm-Bodied Sharks

Body Temperature of Lamnoid Sharks

Maintaining the Internal Sea

Self and Non-Self

Fuel Economy of the White Shark

Sensory Biology

Sensory Biology: Windows on the World

Challenges of Sensing in Water

Vision and a Carpet of Light

Hearing and Vibration Detection


Smell and Taste

Touch and Proprioception

Brain and Cognition

Inside the Mind of a Killer

Animal Cognitive Ecology: Dawn of a New Science

Structure and Function of the White Shark Brain

Mental Processes of the White Shark

Instinct and Learning in the White Shark

Is the White Shark Intelligent?


Catch as Catch Can

White Shark Predatory Behavior at Seal Island

Research Methods

Cape Fur Seal Anti-Predatory Strategies

White Shark Bite Kinematics

White Shark Bite Forensics


Patterns of White Shark Attacks on Humans

Categories of White Shark Attacks

Mistaken Identity or Something Else?

Kinder, Gentler Shark Deterrents

Advice to Those Who Work or Play in Waters Inhabited by White Sharks

Ecology and Conservation

White Shark Ecology and Conservation

Sympathy for the Devil

JAWS Reconsidered

Research and Ecotourism

White Shark Breaching

Eye-to-Eye with a Great White

Topics in Shark Biology


40 Winks Under the Sea

How Do Sharks Swim When Asleep?

Requiem Threats: agonistic displays in the Grey Reef and other sharks

A Curious Basker

Catch as Catch Can

And in This Corner . . .

Why Do Sharks Strand?

Making a Shark Documentary

Do Satellite Tags 'Jam' a Shark's Ampullae of Lorenzini?

Do Sharks Make Sounds?

Why Do Sharks Expose Their Dorsal Fins?

Co-operative Hunting in Sandtiger Sharks

Distribution & Ecology

Shark Ecomorphotypes

Through a Glass, Darkly


Checklist of Living Sharks

Bully for Batoids!

Building a Better Mouth Trap

If I had a Hammer

Origin and Evolution of the "Hammer"

In Search of the Golden Hammerhead

Patterns in Lamnoid Evolution

Arctic Sharks?

Swimming with Jurassic Shark

Life History

Intrauterine Cannibalism in Sharks

Biology of the Manta Ray

From Here to Maternity

Port Jackson Egg Placement

One Basket or Many?

Sandtiger: the State of Ignorance

Why are Filter Feeding Elasmobranchs So Big?

Batoid Size and Sexual Maturity

Have Ecosystem, Will Travel

Stingray City Limits

Tooth of the Tiger

Why Do Sharks Have 2 Penises?

Manta Ray FAQ

Secret Life of the Unborn Shark (pt 1)

Secret Life of the Unborn Shark (pt 2)

Elasmobranch Reproductive Modes

Name Games

Grey Nurse vs Sandtiger

Recent Changes in Hammerhead Taxonomy

Origin of the Name "Nurse" Shark?

The Value of Scientific Names

Tangled Taxonomic History of the Sandtiger

Rhincodon or Rhiniodon? A Whale Shark by any Other Name


Albinism in Sharks

Biological Batteries

Cold Fire in the Sea

Fire in the Belly of the Beast

More on Warm-Bodied Sharks

Putting the Bite on Cancer

Wound Healing in Sharks

Why do Most Sharks Live in Salt Water?

The Importance of Being Cartilaginous

Without Bones, How Do Sharks Make Red Blood Cells?

Thar She Blows!

The Swimming See-Saw

Does Liver Size Limit Shark Body Size?

Electric Rays: a Shocking Use of Muscle Power

Lovely Day for a Walk

Diversity of Feeding Mechanisms in Sharks

Attacked by a Dogfish

How Fast Can a Shark Swim?

Sea Monsters: Two Cases of Mistaken Identity

Freshwater Sharks and Rays

Shark Cartilage Quackery


A Matter of Scale

Big Fish Stories

The Power of Shark Bites

Haulin' Bass

What is the Smallest Species of Shark?

What is the Largest Shark Ever Caught?

Elasmobranch Record Holders


Sharks as Predators of Humans

What's Up With All These Shark Attacks?

The Case of the New Jersey Man-Eater

First-Person Report on Diagnosis and Treatment of Secondary Infection of a Stingray Wound

Sensory Biology

Living Lodestones

The Nose Knows

The Amazing Sensory Talents of Batoids

A Window to the Seasons

How Many Senses Does a Shark Have?

Do Sharks Feel Pain?

Student Resources

A Note to Students

So, You Wanna Be a Shark Biologist

Opportunities to Participate in Field Research

Books Recommended for the Advanced Student

How to Cite Material from this Website

Recommended Shark Books

Recent Shark Books

Recent Shark Books Archives

Top 10 Favorites

Recommended for the Advanced Student

Recommended for Children

How to Draw Sharks

How to Draw Sharks

Features of a Great White Shark

Step 1 - Draw an Oval

Step 2 - Add Head and Body

Step 3 - Add Dorsal and Pectoral Fins

Step 4 - Add 2nd Dorsal, Pelvic and Anal Fins

Step 5 - Add Tail and Keel

Step 6 - Add Eyes, Mouth and Gill Slits

Step 7 - Add Coloration and Keel Details

Step 8 - Add Lateral Line, Teeth, and Final Details

Step 9 - Erase Guide Lines

Step 10 - Shade

Advanced Techniques - Drawing Other Sharks

Advanced Techniques - Giving Your Sharks 'Life'



Phylogenetic Checklist of Sharks of the World


Conservation Status Criteria

Conservation Status of Selected Elasmobranchs


Issues in Conservation

Sympathy for the Devil

JAWS Reconsidered

The Mysterious, Endangered River Sharks (Glyphis spp.)

Collapse of Shark Populations in the Western North Atlantic

Slaughter in Paradise


Scientific Publications by ReefQuest Centre Staff

Popular Publications by ReefQuest Centre Staff

For Sale: The Ultimate Guide to Great White Watching


ReefQuest Centre for Shark Research
Text and illustrations R. Aidan Martin
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